If you are considering to replace these windows to something more efficient and long lasting, you may have more than a couple choices. Windows are one of the most important parts of our home, not only for the purpose of allowing natural light into our homes, but also for ventilation and circulation, for exterior aesthetics, for interior aesthetics, for the ability to look outside to that amazing view, and even to prevent ourselves from becoming depressed.
When it comes to types of windows, there are several common types of openings.
1) Casement - The window splits in the middle and can open using rotary crank or a lever. These are one of the most common types of windows found in buildings, particularly houses and apartments. Typically, they will allow for 100 percent ventilation.
2) Hopper - Commonly mistaken with the Awning, this window requires particular hardware at the bottom hinge that allows the opening to be limited at the top. You will notice these types of windows in highrise buildings. Recently, the tilt-and-turn is making is way into many homes with the dual-action that enables versatility in ventilating.
3) Awning - Similar to the hopper style windows, the awning windows have a hinge at the top. This creates a canopy like feature that can shield against rain.
4) Jalousie - Many may find these types of windows in your home, whether you may have liked to or not. Commonly found in sundrooms and porches, they are small slots of awning-like top hinged openings that open at the same time. The lever allows these slots to be set at any position. Although they can have a great "cooling" affect, they can be very obstructive to the view.
6) Sliding - Sliding windows are also a very common type of window found in many homes. They allow half to be completely open, whether it be vertical (gliding) or horizontal.
7) Pivoting - This type of window pivots in the centre which can rotate 180 or 360 degrees around its axis.
Windows can be found as a single pane or multiple paned, also know to have muntins. Muntins are strips of wood or metal that separate or hold panes of glass in the window. They are also known as glazing bars, muntin bars, or sash bars. In the mid 19th century, small piece of glass which were cheaper to produce than a large single pane, where fabricated into a grid using muntins. We agree with Wikipedia in that they were more "architecturally attractive" than single paned windows. In the UK and some other countries, however, many of these muntins were removed from thousands of older buildings in favor of large panes of glass.
Muntins are often confused with mullions and astragals. Mullions are what completely separate the window units. Astragals close the gap between two leaves of a double door.
If one were to go look at their 19th Century style window with so called muntins, but notice that there is in fact only a single pane of glass, they are looking at a grille. Grills are a decorative structure of either wood or other material to give it the appearance of muntins. They may be cheaper than re-creating a window with real muntins, but some of them look great from afar!
And finally, another feature of a window is a transom. Transoms are found either above a window or a door. They are a transverse bar or beam in a frame separating the window above from what is found below.
Here is a wonderful diagram to show you the specific parts of a window.
And finally, some examples of pretty windows.
Casement Window: favim.com
Hopper Window: orderwindowsonline.com
Awning Window: cover4your.com
Jalousie Window: Selector.com
Sliding Window: Renewcoloradowindowsanddoors.com
Pivoting Windows: HH Pivot Windows and Doors
Double Hung: wisconsinremodeler.com
Wood Casement: inhabitat.com
Muntins with Console Table: www.construction-partner.com
Round Top Metal Window: noblemetalworks.com